A roof can be constructed In many different ways and identification of problems can be extremely difficult. Would you know where to start?
The principal defects to look out for are adequate strength in the joists and purloins, obvious leakage and the general condition of the cladding or tiles. Flat roofs are prone to leakage which can result in damp penetration & internal damage from rot.
There are several differing construction types. Walls can be made from solid brick, cavity brick, timber frame or concrete. Could you identify one from another?
Each type suffers from defects in any number of ways. Movement and subsidence are the easiest to spot but common faults which cannot be detected so easily include wall tie failure, defective vapor barriers and pointing, along with spalling brickwork. Other problems can be caused by damp and fungal ingress which in the case of timber frame can cause substantial structural failure that would not be identified by any visual inspection you may undertake. You will need an experienced and very knowledgeable specialist to look beneath the surface & identify problems.
Floors are generally constructed from timber or other solid materials such as concrete. All floors can fail due to subsidence, poor installation and inadequate damp proofing. Timber can rot, overload or distort with costly consequences. Under the floors lie the perils of rising & penetrating damp, movement and problems outside the home with your services, drainage & tree root ingress.